Electronic Music

Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal. Originally developed to accelerate image rendering for electronic gaming , GPUs are also used in many artificial intelligence applications, such as machine learning.

It was pioneered by Reed Ghazala in the 1960s and Reed coined the name "circuit bending" in 1992. Miller Puckette developed graphic signal-processing software for 4X called Max and later ported it to Macintosh for real-time MIDI control, bringing algorithmic composition availability to most composers with modest computer programming background. In 1975, the Japanese company Yamaha licensed the algorithms for frequency modulation synthesis from John Chowning, who had experimented with it at Stanford University since 1971. Yamaha's engineers began adapting Chowning's algorithm for use in a digital synthesizer, adding improvements such as the "key scaling" method to avoid the introduction of distortion that normally occurred in analog systems during frequency modulation. In this era, the sound of rock musicians like Mike Oldfield and The Alan Parsons Project used to be arranged and blended with electronic effects and/or music as well, which became much more prominent in the mid-1980s.

Their synthesiser-heavy "krautrock", along with the work of Brian Eno , would be a major influence on subsequent electronic rock. Despite the limited electronic equipment available to dub pioneers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry, their experiments in remix culture were musically cutting-edge. King Tubby, for example, was a sound system proprietor and electronics technician, whose small front-room studio in the Waterhouse ghetto of western Kingston was a key site of dub music creation. "With Stockhausen and Mauricio Kagel in residence, it became a year-round hive of charismatic avante-gardism " on two occasions combining electronically generated sounds with relatively conventional orchestras—in Mixtur and Hymnen, dritte Region mit Orchester .

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The nightclubs were all totally different to ours, playing early electronic music. These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'electronic.' Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Shahani is a student at Texas A&M University studying electronic systems engineering technology, a university spokesperson confirmed to CNN.

Electronic In American English

Historically, electronics labs have consisted of electronics devices and equipment located in a physical space, although in more recent years the trend has been towards electronics lab simulation software, such as CircuitLogix, Multisim, and PSpice. The field of Electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons using electronic devices. Electronics uses active devices to control electron flow by amplification and rectification, which distinguishes it from classical electrical engineering, which only uses passive effects such as resistance, capacitance and inductance to control electric current flow.

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Myths About Analog Compute

While some were considered novelties and produced simple tones, the Telharmonium synthesized the sound of several orchestral instruments with reasonable precision. It achieved viable public interest and made commercial progress into streaming music through telephone networks. Following the foundation of electronics company Sony in 1946, composers Toru Takemitsu and Minao Shibata independently explored possible uses for electronic technology to produce music.

During his first tenure at the agency, Dr. Califf focused on modernizing the collection and use of electronic health data to answer questions about drugs and medical devices that could not be gleaned from clinical trials. Cat whisker” detector, which was composed of a fine wire in delicate contact with the surface of a natural crystal of lead sulfide or some other semiconductor material. These devices were undependable, lacked sufficient sensitivity, and required constant adjustment of the whisker-to-crystal contact to produce the desired result. The fact that crystal rectifiers worked at all encouraged scientists to continue studying them and gradually to obtain the fundamental understanding of the electrical properties of semiconducting materials necessary to permit the invention of the transistor. MIDI technology allows a single keystroke, control wheel motion, pedal movement, or command from a microcomputer to activate every device in the studio remotely and synchrony, with each device responding according to conditions predetermined by the composer.

Paul Hindemith and Ernst Toch composed several pieces in 1930 by layering recordings of instruments and vocals at adjusted speeds. Influenced by these techniques, John Cage composed Imaginary Landscape No. 1 in 1939 by adjusting the speeds of recorded tones. Avant-garde composers criticized the predominant use of electronic instruments for conventional purposes. The instruments offered expansions in pitch resources that were exploited by advocates of microtonal music such as Charles Ives, Dimitrios Levidis, Olivier Messiaen and Edgard Varèse. Further, Percy Grainger used the theremin to abandon fixed tonation entirely, while Russian composers such as Gavriil Popov treated it as a source of noise in otherwise-acoustic noise music.

Synth-pop was taken up across the world, with international hits for acts including Men Without Hats, Trans-X and Lime from Canada, Telex from Belgium, Peter Schilling, Sandra, Modern Talking, Propaganda and Alphaville from Germany, Yello from Switzerland and Azul y Negro from Spain. In 1977, Gene Page recorded a disco version of the hit theme by John Williams from Steven Spielberg film Close Encounters of the Third Kind. The score of 1978 film Midnight Express composed by Italian synth-pioneer Giorgio Moroder won the Academy Award for Best Original Score in 1979, as did it again in 1981 the score by Vangelis for Chariots of Fire. Early belt-drive turntables were unsuitable for turntablism, since they had a slow start-up time, and they were prone to wear-and-tear and breakage, as the belt would break from backspin or scratching. The first direct-drive turntable was invented by Shuichi Obata, an engineer at Matsushita , based in Osaka, Japan. It eliminated belts, and instead employed a motor to directly drive a platter on which a vinyl record rests.

These developments led to the growth of synth-pop, which after it was adopted by the New Romantic movement, allowed synthesizers to dominate the pop and rock music of the early 1980s until the style began to fall from popularity in the mid-to-end of the decade. Along with aforementioned successful pioneers, key acts included Yazoo, Duran Duran, Spandau Ballet, Culture Club, Talk Talk, Japan, and Eurythmics. In the late 1960s, pop and rock musicians, including the Beach Boys and the Beatles, began to use electronic instruments, like the theremin and Mellotron, to supplement and define their sound. Also in the late 1960s, the music duo Silver Apples and experimental rock bands like White Noise and the United States of America, are regarded as pioneers to the electronic rock and electronica genres for their work in melding psychedelic rock with oscillators and synthesizers. Filed in 1964 (See Drum machine#History), which he released as the FR-1 Rhythm Ace drum machine the same year.


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